Self-assembling peptide nanofiber HIV vaccine elicits robust vaccine-induced antibody functions and modulates Fc glycosylation.


To develop vaccines for certain key global pathogens such as HIV, it is crucial to elicit both neutralizing and non-neutralizing Fc-mediated effector antibody functions. Clinical evidence indicates that non-neutralizing antibody functions including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) contribute to protection against several pathogens. In this study, we demonstrated that conjugation of HIV Envelope (Env) antigen gp120 to a self-assembling nanofiber material named Q11 induced antibodies with higher breadth and functionality when compared to soluble gp120. Immunization with Q11-conjugated gp120 vaccine (gp120-Q11) demonstrated higher tier 1 neutralization, ADCP, and ADCC as compared to soluble gp120. Moreover, Q11 conjugation altered the Fc N-glycosylation profile of antigen-specific antibodies, leading to a phenotype associated with increased ADCC in animals immunized with gp120-Q11. Thus, this nanomaterial vaccine strategy can enhance non-neutralizing antibody functions possibly through modulation of immunoglobulin G Fc N-glycosylation.